Methods

Continuous underway sampling of surface ocean

OceanPack and ancillary systems in wet lab

  • Temperature
  • Conductivity
  • pH
  • Turbidity
  • CDOM concentration
  • Chlorophyll a concentration
  • Phycocyanin concentration
  • Photosynthetic activity
  • Plankton counts and optical characterization
  • Irradiance
  • O2 concentration
  • CO2 concentration
  • CO2 isotope ratio
  • Nitrate concentration
  • Particle size distribution
  • Polycyclic aromatic compounds
  • Dissolved Argon
  • Dissolved Oxygen
  • Dissolved Nitrogen

Continuous atmosphere sampling

Aerosol lab (AG Pöhlker)

sampling at 10 m height

  • particle size distribution  10 – 430 nm
  • particle size distribution 0.5 – 20 µm
  • particle size distribution  5 nm–2.5 µm
  • black carbon per aerosol particle
  • black carbon monitor
Filtered particle collection of

  • Bioaerosols
  • Organic geochemistry (together with AG Martinez-Garcia)
  • Trace metals (together with AG Galer)
  • Gaseous organics (together with AG Lammel)


Discrete measurements from deployments at station

Plankton in the mixed surface layer of the Madeira Basin in the North Atlantic ocean, sampled down to 40 m depth. Planktic foraminifers (Photos A-G) are protozoa and are part of the calcifying zooplankton with which climate changes in the last 100 million years may be reconstructed. A-C have lost their spikes, which are still present in E and F. In A the living cell is visible as a grey haze. Algae (H-J) produce oxygen in the euphotic zone of the ocean. Seastar larvae (K) are a free living life stage of the bottom-dwelling seastars, a typical life cycle in marine organisms. Acantharia (L) are planktic radiolaria with a strontiumsulphate skeleton. Cyanobacteria (M) of the genus Trichodesmium fix atmospheric nitrogen in nutrient-depleted parts of the ocean such as the Madeiran Basin. Copepods (N) are part of the metazooplankton and serve as food for the foraminifers. Pelagic snails, or pteropods, have their foot structure adapted into “wings” and have a calcareous shell (aragonite). The white and black scale bars indicate 0.2mm. Photos courtesy of Otto Larink, S/Y Eugen Seibold cruise ES19D03.

Deployables from the rear A-frame and working deck

CTD profiles down to 700 m water depth

  • Salinity
  • Temperature
  • Pressure
  • pH
  • O2 concentration
  • Light extinction
  • Chlorophyll a concentration


Rosette water sampler, 5 bottles @5 liters each, down to 700 m water depth

  • Chlorophyll a concentration
  • Nitrogen isotopes
  • Macronutrients (NO2-,NO3-, PO43- , Si)
  • Photosynthetic activity
  • Flow cytometry, plankton counts per optical group
  • Particulate trace metals (together with AG Galer)
  • Particulate organic geochemistry (together with AG Martinez-Garcia)


McLane high-volume pump

  • Particulate trace metals (AG Galer)
  • Particulate org. geochemistry (AG Martinez-Garcia)

MultiNet, Hydrobios Midi, down to 700 m water depth maximum

  • Mesozooplankton

Bongo Net, Hydrobios, down to 100 m water depth maximum

  • Mesozooplankton
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